Codell Sandstone

Codell Sandstone

Capillary Pressure Analysis in Codell Sandstone

Codell Sandstone is an important resource. While core analysis can accurately measure porosity, permeability, saturation and capillary pressure, image-based rock physics can  measure and provide data on two- and three-phase relative permeability. This study developed an integrated Core Analysis Image-Based Rock Physics (CA-IBRP) workflow with a robust method for integrating porosity phases and two different resolutions (FIB-SEM and MicroCT) to obtain representative elementary volume pseudo-properties for use in reservoir modeling. The workflow begins with the identification of representative lithofacies from core/logs. Porosity, permeability, saturation, capillary pressure and effective gas 2-P Kr (Keg) are measured using core analysis. MicroCT is then used to characterize the distribution of the five principal MicroCT-image phases: grains (G), intergranular φ (IGV), large clay (kaolinite) + intercrystalline φ (IX), small mixed-layer clay + microcrystalline φ (MIX), and altered lithics + intragranular φ (ING). IGV, IX, MIX, and ING are then imaged with FIB-SEM at respectively appropriate resolutions and quantified using artificial intelligence-based image analytics.

Clay Bound Microporosity

An example image of a principal property object measured and discussed in this paper.

Relevant Publications

Paper presented at Unconventional Resources Technology Conference 2018 (URTeC): Application of Integrated Core and Multiscale 3-D Image Rock Physics to Characterize Porosity, Permeability, Capillary Pressure, and Two- and Three-Phase Relative Permeability in the Codell Sandstone, Denver Basin, Colorado
With Whiting
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A.P. Byrnes, S. Zhang, L. Canter, M.D. Sonnenfeld, Application of Integrated Core and Multiscale 3-D Image Rock Physics to Characterize Porosity, Permeability, Capillary Pressure, and Two and Three-Phase Relative Permeability in the Codell Sandstone, Denver Basin, Colorado, Paper presented at: Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 2018 Jul 23-25; Houston, TX. With Whiting.

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